mostly the maccabees
The Roman Republic was governed by the Senate, an assembly of ex-officeholders rather like the "life peers" in the British House of Lords. Executive power was normally vested in twwo Consuls, elected by the Senate, or, in times of Crisis, to a Dictator with absolute power. This system broke down in the last century BC, and after a series of civil wars was replaced by the Empire. This vested absolute power in an Emperor, who might or might not pretend to take the Senate seriously as a "colleague". Effectively, the Emperor was chosen by the Roman Army, and despite the occasional "run" of good ones (notably in the 2nd Century AD) the Imperial Constitution became essentially "despotism tempered by assassination".
Mark Antony died in 30 BCE.
After Octavian had defeated him and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium, they fled back to Alexandria, followed by Octavian.
Affter a non-battle in which Antony's fleet and army defected to Octavian, Antony attempted suicide, and managed to botch it. He was carried to Cleopatra's mausoleum where she had shut herself up in, and there died in her arms.
After a couple of weeks of unsuccessful negotiation with Octavian, rather than be taken alive and exhibited in a triumph in Rome, she also suicided.
Christians have always been split. The Jesus Mystery Cult spread around the Mediterranean, and each cult centre had its own ways. For example we have 55 different gospels left today, so there must have been hundreds, ie each centre had its own version as well as some of the more popular ones. There was obvious dissent if you believe the account of Acts and the Pauline letters. Paul was beset by competitors bearing different versions (Appollos of Alexandria was his pet hate, so he must have been good), and in his letters he abjectly begs the recipients to follow his line, and calls his competitors who came after him 'dogs'. Yes, it was bitterly split from the beginning.