The naming scheme for comets produces names like 1P/1682 Q1. This is more informative (if you know how the system works) and precise (the scheme ensures that every comet has a unique name), but considerably less memorable, than "Halley's comet."
The Caloris Basin. The diameter of it is approximately 1300km.
The Earth is rotating on its axis as a single body, spinning in a vacuum. The atmosphere is pulled along with the rotation, so there are not any things moving at different speeds to make any kind of noise. However, the fact that the Earth rotates is a major factor in the creation of weather, and there are many noises associated with that, which many animals can hear, including us.
Different religions have different explanations for what created the universe, and how, but what they all have in common is that they rely on faith to believe that explanation.
A scientific theory is defined as an explanation that fits all the known facts. In this way scientific theories are very different from what lay people call theories. Having said that, the scientific theory for the creation of the universe is that it began 13.7 billion years ago, with an event popularly known as the'Big Bang'. In fact, in the infinity of space and time, a scientific hypothesis consistent with the 'Big Bang' (but still only a hypothesis) is that there is a multitude of universes like ours, collectively known as the 'multiverse'.
Of course, the scientific explanation says that the stars are far larger and older than our earth, a readily observed fact. The explanation in Genesis chapter 1 says that the sun, moon and stars are at least a few days younger than the earth. Both can not be correct.
Black. The reason behind is the moon has very low gravity. Because of this it has an atmosphere so thin as to be almost negligible, with a total atmospheric mass of less than 104 kg. No atmosphere means no scattering of light which moon's surface receives from sun. So person standing on the moon surface will observe sky being of black color even during day time. On the other hand earth has gravity multiple times of moon's gravity. Due to this it has atmosphere which is responsible for scattering of light which earth receives from sun.So person standing on earth surface observes blue colored sky during day time. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. As light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air. However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue