Respiration without oxygen. Anaerobic Exercise There are three energy-producing systems in the human body, one of which is aerobic (using oxygen), and two of which are anaerobic (not using oxygen): ATP-CP and Glycolysis.
For the first few seconds you exercise you're using the ATP-CP system. This relies on stored ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the molecule that produces the energy in all living things, from bacteria on up).
Another stored molecule, CP (creatinine phosphate) helps restore your ATP. CP is restored aerobically (with oxygen).
When you exercise beyond the limit of your ATP-CP stores (anything more than a few seconds) the second anaerobic system kicks in: anaerobic glycolysis.
This makes ATP from glucose (sugar) stored in your liver and muscles. You get the glucose from eating carbohydrates. (Eating a reasonable amount of carbs after exercising helps increase the glucose stores.)
When you exercise beyond the limits of your ATP-CP and glucose systems, your body needs to start producing energy "on the fly" [without O2] using lactic acid instead. That is anaerobic Respiration - without O2.
* The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living things. * All organisms are made up of one or more cells. * All cells come from pre-existing cells through cellular division. * Cells carry genetic material passed to daughter cells during cellular division. * All cells are essentially the same in chemical composition. * Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells. The three main parts of the cell theory are: 1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the most basic unit for function and structure of all organisms. 3. All cells come from cells that already exist. This theory also contains two exceptions: 1. Viruses are considered by some to be alive, yet they are not made up of cells. 2. The first cell did not originate from a preexisting cell. The cell theory was originally developed by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden, and fully accepted by the work of Louis Pasteur, specifically his work regarding microbes. Cells are a basic unit of biology. The cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1663. He remarked that it looked strangely similar to cells in which monks inhabit. However what he actually discovered was a part of a cork (or dead plant) and what he was looking at was the empty cell walls with no nucleus in the center. The first man to witness a live cell under a microscope was Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1673.
The energy produced by an ecosystem is consumed by its inhabitants, you have to think of it like a circle. Start with plants who use water, sunshine, and nutrients from the soil and produce oxygen and a food source ( energy ) for living herbavores, who in turn eat the plants ( promoting growth, spreading pollen, and opening up the canopy for sun to penetrate ), breathe oxygen and release CO2 which is used by plants, and excrete nutrients for the soil. These animals are in turn eaten by carnivores who do the same but keep the numbers of herbavores in check so that the plants are not over grazed, Insects feed on the waste and convert it further into a useable food source for the plants and provide a food source for birds and reptiles. In an ecosystem each component provides for the needs of the other creating a balance where nothing is wasted. Water is a non renewable resource in the chain that must be provided from the outside in all cases except in a sealed ecosystem where evaporation is recollected as rainfall or in condensation. Solar energy is used by the plants for photosynthesis. I had an aquarium that worked like a marine ecosystem, the fish excreted amonia and used oxygen, the plants gave off oxygen, used the amonia and CO2 to grow and a controlled growth of algae consumed the extra nitrates in a bio wheel to keep the water liveable for the fish. I needed to add food for the fish so that they would not eat too much of the plants and water to make up for evaporation but otherwise it was self sustaining. It is important however not to tip the scales in the favor of any one of the elements for risk of throwing off the balance. I.E. too many fish will create too much waste and use too much oxygen for the rest of the system to compensate for.
It is called the capsid, and is usually composed of separate sub-units called capsomeres.