Energy -- usually in the form of light (or more generally, electromagnetic radiation).
Did you mean 2 x 10 to the power 23? if so it should be typed as 2 x 10 ^ 23 The trinitro toluene, (T.N.T) C7H5(NO2)3 sample will have; 2 x 1023 x 7 for the Carbon atoms, plus; 2 x 1023 x 5 for the hdrogen atoms, plus; 2 x 1023 x 3 for the nitogen atoms, plus; 2 x 1023 x 2 x 3 for the oxygen. you just need to add together the individual totals to find your answer.
Look up in a table the standard molar entropies of the reactants and the products. This is usually abbreviated at S0, and is in units of J/(mol*K)
Use Hess's Law, which states that the change in entropy of a reaction is equal to the sum of the standard entropies of the products (multiplied by the coefficients from the balanced equations) minus the sum of the standard entropies of the reactants (multiplied by the sum of the coefficients from the balanced reaction.
Like dissolves like. Lipstick is made of greasy or polar molecules, and so is petroleum jelly. Water is a polar molecule. Just like oil and water don't mix, nor does water and lipstick. Water is good at removing polar molecules (like salt for instance), but not good at removing grease. That is why you have to use soap to clean clothes -- because water alone does not remove grease or oils.
See the Related Questions for more about how soap works.