Fractional distillation is a method of separation based upon differences between boiling points of components.
See the two Related Questions to the left for complete instructions on how to make any solution of any concentrations.
To make a 1 in 4 dilution, it is best is to use a graduated cylinder. Measure out 3 parts water and add to that 1 part stock solution, which gives a total of 4 parts. For instance, if you measure out 30 mL of water, and then add 10 mL of stock solution to that, you will have a total of 40 mL solution, 1/4 the concentration of the original stock solution. (Or, equivalently if you need more than this, measure out 150 mL of water and add 50 mL of stock solution to give a total of 200 mL of the diluted solution). If you don't have a graduated cylinder, you'll need two containers: one small and one much larger. Fill the small one completely with water, and then pour that into a new (larger) container. Do that two more times (for a total of 3). Then fill the smaller container with stock solution, and add the water. When diluting acids and bases, it is extremely important to add the acid/base to water, and not the other way around! If you want to do a dilution with different numbers, just change the numbers accordingly. For example, if you want a 2 in 5 dilution, add 3 parts water to 2 parts stock solution. When it says "2 in 5" that means two parts stock solution to 5 total parts, so that leaves 3 parts water!
Forming bonds always releases energy. Breaking bonds always requires energy.
A catalyst is a substance that makes chemical reactions happen faster. They don't affect the outcome of the reaction, only the time in which it happens.