An integrated circuit is the name for collections of electronic components imbedded onto a single piece of silicon. Silicon is the base for most transistors, diodes and other semiconducters. It can also be used as a resistor, capacitor and coil.
Each IC is designed to carry out certain tasks and the circuit is designed accordingly. The circuit is then printed or etched onto the silicon substrate and then into a plastic or ceramic enclosure. (Note: a very complex process has been reduced to a single sentence here!)
Applications for integrated circuits are as varied as the imagination of the designers. Within limits, anything that can be designed and built with discrete components can be put into an IC. Audio amplifier, video processors, logic, memory, switches, radio frequency encoders and decoders are just a few examples. The range of IC applications is vast and growing daily. One of the major applications is computing. Computers that once had thousands of transistors have been reduced to a handful of ICs. The early computers that were the size of a bulding are now outperformed in almost every way by laptops and even handheld computers because of the use if ICs
As ICs are developed, the design costs and production costs of equipment are reducing. Reliability increases as large parts of the final product are enclosed in single packages, reducing assembly errors, connection problems and size of circuit boards.
It is now rare to see any electronic equipment that does not have at least one IC. Indeed, some have only one IC and require no other components of any kind. The real answer to the question is to look around. Wherever electronics are used, there is probably an IC inside.
AnswerThere are many aplications your CPU on your PC is a integrated circuit and you can get a complete radio receiver on one IC, then you get TTL gates and timers etc.
A light using two (or more) electrodes in a glass tube filled with a mixture of inert gases. The most common (and the source of the name) is neon gas, which produces a red light when ionized by current flow between the electrodes. Helium, argon, and xenon are used in the mixture to produce other colors. Sometimes neon lights have a tiny amount of tritium gas added because the radioactivity pre-ionizes a little of the inert gas making it easier to start current flow to ionize the rest of the gas and produce light.
One type of neon light used in older electronic equipment that displayed numbers called a Nixie tube typically had 12 electrodes in a cylindrical glass tube: one electrode was common, ten of the electrodes were shaped like the digits 0 to 9, and the last electrode was a decimal point.
You need wire, a nail, and some steel sheet cut from a can. Then you need a bell.
Wind the wire round the nail to make an electromagnet. Nail the strip of steel to a wooden block. Fix the electromagnet so that it pulls the steel when switched on. Then you need to make a switch which will be another arrangement of thumbtacks. So when the magnet switches on the steel pulls away from the tack and breaks the circuit. The steel hits the bell but it returns dues tothe magnet being switched off.
Yes. Let's look at an example.
A 12 volt system can operate a 12 volt relay coil to actuate the plunger. But when the field of the coil collapses in the instant following when the coil is de-energized, the collapsing field can generate an "inductive kick" that can easily reach several hundred volts.
Relay coils frequently have diodes across their coils to shunt this voltage through the coil and prevent it reaching other parts of the circuit because it is a higher voltage and could damage components.
As a closing note, you're not "getting something for nothing" or generating more energy out of the coil than originally went in. The power in still equals the power out (less any loss). With a properly designed coil utilizing Marko Rodin's configuration, losses are negligible.
Comparator is usually a substance which compares two quantities; one quantity is the processed one and the other is a standard value to which the processed value has to be compared. Hysteresis is a property in which the change in the magnetization lags behind change in the magnetic field. Now, Hysteresis comparator can be described as a comparator which compares a processed quantity with a quantity whose value is standard for hysteresis property., the difference being given as the output