It is called Islamic Shari'a in Arabic
Ihsan (or Ehsan or Ahsan or احسان) is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence." In Islam, Ihsan is the Muslim responsibility to obtain perfection, or excellence, in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God (Arabic Allah) as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe he is constantly watching over them. That definition comes from the hadith (known as the Hadith of Gabriel) in which Muhammad states, "[Ihsan is] to worship God as though you see Him, and if you cannot see Him, then indeed He sees you." (Al-Bukhari and Al-Muslim). Ihsan is one of the Three Principles of the Islamic faith (Islam, Iman and Ihsan) and means "to do beautiful things". In contrast to the emphases of islam (what one should do) and iman(why one should do), the concept of ihsan is primarily associated with intention. One who "does what is beautiful" is labelled muhsin. It is generally held that a person can only achieve true ihsan with the help and guidance of Allah, who governs all things. Ibadah (worship) is one embodiment of ihsan. The concept of Ihsan has been understood differently by various Islamic scholars. For example, some scholars explain Ihsan as being the "inner-dimension" of Islam whereas shariah is often described as the "outer-dimension". Ihsan is excellence in worship, work, and in social interactions. For example, ihsan includes sincerity during Muslim prayers and being grateful to parents, family, and God. Hi Ihsan
Islamic Law, called the SHARI'A, is based on the exegesis of Islamic texts, especially the Qur'an and a case by case applicability to present cases. As a result, there are certain laws and penal codes which cannot be altered, modernized, or reformed. The base Islamic texts are considered to be Divinely Authored and are, therefore, beyond question or debate. Even if the majority disagrees with a law, they have to abide by it because the law has Divine approval.
The first law is to believe that Allah (or God in English and same God worshiped in Christianity and Judaism) is the one and only one God with no partner, no companion, no son, no father, no associate, and no equivalence. For other practices and laws refer to questions below.
They are four main sources:
- The Quran:
Muslims believe theQuran
to be the direct words of Allah, as revealed to and transmitted by the Prophet Muhammad. All sources of Islamic law must be in essential agreement with the Quran, the most fundamental source of Islamic knowledge. When the Quran itself does not speak directly or in detail about a certain subject, Muslims only then turn to alternative sources of Islamic law
- The Sunnah:
Sunnahis the traditions or known practices of the Prophet Muhammad, many of which have been recorded in the volumes of
literature. The resources include many things that he said, did, or agreed to -- and he lived his life according to the Quran, putting the Quran into practice in his own life. During his lifetime, the Prophet's family and companions observed him and shared with others exactly what they had seen in his words and behaviors -- i.e. how he performed ablutions, how he prayed, and how he performed many other acts of worship. People also asked the Prophet directly for rulings on various matters, and he would pronounce his judgment. All of these details were passed on and recorded, to be referred to in future legal rulings. Many issues concerning personal conduct, community and family relations, political matters, etc. were addressed during the time of the Prophet, decided by him, and recorded. The Sunnah can thus clarify details of what is stated generally in the Quran.
- Ijma' (consensus):
In situations when Muslims have not been able to find a specific legal ruling in the Quran or Sunnah, the consensus of the community is sought (or at least the consensus of the legal scholars within the community). The Prophet Muhammad once said that his community (i.e. the Muslim community) would never agree on an error.
- Qiyas (analogy):
In cases when something needs a legal ruling, but has not been clearly addressed in the other sources, judges may use analogy, reasoning, and legal precedent to decide new case law. This is often the case when a general principle can be applied to new situations.