- The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
- To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
- To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
- To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
- To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
- To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;
- To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
- To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
- To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
- To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
- To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
- To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
- To provide and maintain a Navy;
- To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
- To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
- To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
- To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And
- To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
Dorothea Lange (May 26, 1895 to October 11, 1965) was an influential documentary photographer. Lange is best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the tragic consequences of the Great Depression and profoundly influenced the development of documentary photography.
Born in Hoboken New Jersey, Lange began her career in New York, later migrating to San Francisco where she opened a portrait studio in 1918. With the onset of the Great Depression, Lange turned her camera lens from the studio to the street.
Her searing studies of homelessness immediately captured the attention of local photographers and led to her employment with the federal Resettlement Administration (RA), later called the FSA. From 1935 to 1940, Lange's work for the RA and FSA brought the plight of the poor and forgotten, particularly displaced farm families and migrant workers, to public attention. Distributed free of charge to newspapers across the country, her poignant images quickly became icons of the era.
Her most famous photograph, commonly known as Migrant Mother , was the sixth and last frame taken of Lange's haphazard visit to a migrant workers' campsite. She had initially passed the campsite, but twenty minutes later, she turned around on the highway to take another look. Rumor has it that the two younger children's faces are turned away from the camera because they were smiling and laughing during the picture, but none of the six frames shows them laughing or smiling. Lange had them turn away to give the image a more solemn, desperate mood. In 1960, Lange spoke about her experience taking the photograph:
I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it.
In 1941, Lange was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for excellence in photography. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, she gave up the prestigious award to record the forced evacuation of Japanese-Americans (Nisei) to relocation camps in the American West.
Lange was hired by the San Francisco Regional Office of the War Relocation Authority (WRA) in early April 1942 as a photographer investigator to document the evacuation of Japanese Americans from Northern California. Lange completed her work at the end of July 1942.
For decades after the war, images she made of U.S. soldiers carrying weapons as they rounded up the Japanese-Americans were censored by the U.S. government. Her photograph of young Japanese American girls pledging allegiance to the flag shortly before she was abducted to the camps is a haunting reminder that patriotism is no protection for the children of unwanted immigrants.
According to the Oakland Museum, repository for most of Lange's work, it has been estimated that of the approximately 13,000 existing photographs taken for the federal government, Lange made over 700. According to Oakland Museum archivists, "because of the political nature of her relocation photography, she was required to turn over to the WRA all of her negatives, prints, and undeveloped film; thus, very little of this material is contained within the museum's archive." Following the end of the war, a complete file of Lange's WRA negatives and prints was placed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C., with a duplicate set of prints placed at the Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.
Lange's first husband was noted Western Painter Maynard Dixon. Her second husband was Paul Schuster Taylor, a social scientist, who collaborated with her on her social documentations. He also took the well-known photographs showing her on top of a truck with her camera.
In 1952 Lange was one of the founders of Aperture.
On October 11, 1965, Lange died in San Francisco at the age of seventy.
The Three-fifths Compromise was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention. It was added as Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 to the United States Constitution . It stated:
- Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
It was superseded and thereby rescinded by the 14th Amendment in 1868.
This Compromise and amendment stated that only 3/5 of the number of slaves would be counted. This was important for two purposes, which were: counting slaves in this manner (the first time this was being done with slaves for Congressional purposes) would factor into how many seats each state would have for the following decade (10 years) in the United States House of Representatives. Plus, population statistics in general determine what percentage each state would bear for the nation's direct tax burden.
Delegates opposed to slavery generally wished to count only the free inhabitants of each state. Delegates supportive of slavery, on the other hand, generally wanted to count slaves in their actual numbers. Since slaves themselves could not vote, slaveholders would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College. The final compromise of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers reduced the power of the slave states relative to the original southern proposals, but increased it over the northern position.
This seems arcane in hindsight, as none of the slaves could actually vote. However, the result of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers meant the Southern States ended up with lower numbers of Representatives and Northern States ended up with more Representatives. While it increased Northern States' tax burden overall, the North had more businesses and industries than the poorer Southern States.
Back in early American history, we Americans had a heavily debated issue over whether or not to count the southern slaves as part of the south's population. doing so, this would results in a very large majority in the House of Representatives, for Virginia. To avoid this, Congress came to a conclusion that all slaves would count as three fifths of a person when doing a census. How insulting this must of been!? :l Formally known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, a clause to allow a slave to be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of taxation and representation in the Congress. It was proposed in July 1787 during the drafting of the U.S. Constitution at the Constitutional Convention. It was negated by the http://www.answers.com/topic/amendment-xiii-to-the-u-s-constitution.
Texas joined the Union on December 29, 1845, as the 28th state.
One of the most important inventions in American history, was the cotton gin which made taking seeds out of cotton 50 times more effective than by hand. Thus, slaves were "needed" by the south to pick the cotton to fit the fast pace of the cotton gin. In fact, right before the cotton gin's invention, slavery was on the decline. Cotton in the south of the united states became a one crop economy, as 50% of all the exports of the United states, which was unheard of.