McCarthyism was a witch-hunt because it destroyed people's reputations. It was very difficult for an accused person to prove that he or she was not a Communist, and McCarthyism adopted a 'guilty until proven innocent' mindset.
Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 � January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Beaten to death, put in a pen with wild, carnivorous animals, cutting off appendages a little at a time, "the rack", being tied to a post until death. In general, it would consist of any of the tortures that were used in European dungeons or a Roman Coliseum. Cruel and unusual did not only apply to death penalty, it also included torture to force confessions because it was recognized that with enough torture ANYONE could be forced to confess to ANY CRIME.
My understanding was that, at that time, hanging was by far the most common method of capital punishment in the colonies, and later the United States. For quite a while before then, there had been a movement afoot to make capital punishment as humane as possible.
At the time, hanging was the quickest, most efficient, most humane, and least humiliating method of execution available. My guess is that they would view a method of execution as "cruel and unusual" if it was more painful and degrading than it needed to be, and/or simply inflicted pain for its own sake.
This quote is often attributed to Thomas Jefferson, but even his estate, Monticello, denies any evidence that the Founding Father ever used these words.
Even if he had, Jefferson would not have been the originator. The phrase was, in fact, a simplified variant of a line from a 1790 speech by Irish orator John Philpot Curran: The condition upon which God hath given liberty to man is eternal vigilance; which condition if he break, servitude is at once the consequence of his crime and the punishment of his guilt. The phrase was shortened to "eternal vigilance is the price of freedom" and similar sayings used throughout the 18th and 19th centuries by a variety of speakers and authors, including:
- Ida B. Wells, in her 1970 autobiography, Crusade for Justice
- Andrew Jackson, in his 1837 Farewell Address
- Abraham Lincoln
- abolitionist Wendell Phillips
- Leonard Courtney
- George Marshall