In the republic known as the United States, the driving force of a republic, as it is commonly used means a government where there is no monarchy based on family lines or any other method used to install a queen or a king with executive powers. A republic is one which the voters directly elect officials that make laws and enforce them. If not directly, then the elected officials have the power to appoint certain officials, such as judges. Any republic is based on written laws and procedures that have the support of the governed. It is important to use the phrase of " as commonly known as" because there are major governments in the world, such as the Peoples Republic of China, where the voters are members one party with authoritarian powers, not based particularly on a common set of laws that reflect the votes and ideas of a majority part of the nation.
Short answer: The treasury estimates 147.6 million ounces of gold are held at Fort Knox. The US government owns it. Both of those answers are controversial. Long answer: In 1933, the US government, on order of President Roosevelt, undertook to confiscate most of the gold owned by US citizens and exchange it for paper dollars within two weeks. Safety deposit boxes and vaults were sealed. Subsequently, US citizens were not allowed to own most forms of gold. The paper dollars were soon worth far less than the gold they were traded for. If that action is considered legal, the US government now owns the gold in Fort Knox. The vault was used to hold the treasure beginning in 1937. Before World War II, there were 649.6 million ounces of gold in Fort Knox. The treasury now estimates that only 147.6 million ounces remain. However, the gold has not been inventoried since the 1950's. Some believe there is far less gold in Fort Knox. In 1971, the US abandoned the last remnants of the gold standard. US dollars are now fiat currency, not backed by gold or any other commodity.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
This figure isn't available because no one want's to disclose what types of new weaponry is planned for the wars of the future. It is huge. China for example has the world's largest standing army, more than five times as large as the US, and yet the US spends more than four times as much on military expenditures.
The title of Dr. is specific to those that hold a doctorate, in any subject, and is not directly related to the medical profession. Medical doctors are called Dr. because they hold a doctorate in medicine. Other doctorates (e.g. Ph.D.) should also be addressed as Dr. for the same reason. Some individuals confuse this issue over the fact that in the English speaking world the title doctor (profession) is used in place of the more specific title physician and thus associate Dr. with only medical doctors. This is, however, incorrect and all doctorates are Drs.