A barrel shirt is a variant of the pillory. It was a barrel that fitted over the entire body, with the head sticking out from a hole in the top. The criminal is put in either an enclosed barrel, forcing him to kneel in his own filth, or an open barrel leaving him to roam about town or military camp and be ridiculed and scorned.
Many of the early societies in Mesoamerica varied in their complexities. In what is now the southwestern United States, the dry, hostile environment produced survival problems and the societies were not as complex as the ones in what is southeastern Mexico as one example. In the American southwest the so-called Desert tradition evolved. This included southern California as well as the the latter area. The major solutions posed to survival itself precluded advanced development. A subsistence pattern developed. For archaeologists, there was one advantage for their explorations. Unlike the wet, humid areas of the Yucatan peninsula, the American southwest's dry climate preserved many artifacts from the Native Tribes civilizations.
During this period the Russian army was the largest. Russian economy was strong but the political system was at fault. Russia also joined the balkan war.
During the 19th century, the United States was perhaps the greatest influence in the spread of "democratic" governments. Despite the slavery issue, the US Constitution was a document that by far surpassed the laws that European governments allowed for their peoples. Nations in South America, as example, tried to emulate the republican democracy of the US.This influence had more weight when the US abolished slavery in 1865.
I want to say the big question was whether or not the state was anti-slavery or not. It was always about maintaining the balance. For every anti-slavery state there would have to be an arrangement to have a pro-slavery state.