Galileo invented an air thermometer in about 1600, but changes in atmospheric pressure made accurate measurement difficult. Liquids were quickly used instead and Gabriel Fahrenheit was the first to use alcohol (1709) and mercury (1714), in a thermometer.
AnswerA device used to record sound was invented in 1877 by Thomas Alva Edison - the first generally known machine to record and play back sounds. The first recording medium was a foil-covered cylinder which recorded vibrations of sound that were focused by a horn-like device onto a diaphragm; the diaphragm vibrated and transmitted the vibrations to a stylus (needle), which etched a helical groove in the foil surface of the rotating cylinder. The sound could then be played back as a needle went along the groove and reversed the process, making the diaphragm vibrate, reproducing the original sound. The first recording was of Edison himself reciting, "Mary had a little lamb." Charles Sumner Tainter (an associate of Alexander Graham Bell) improved the cylinders by making them out of wax. This cylinder style machine evolved into the "Dictaphone", used mostly by administrators for dictating material to be transcribed into hard-copy text by secretaries. The Dictaphone was still in use in the early 1950's. The first flat, circular record was invented in 1887 by Emile Berliner (1851-1929), a German-born American inventor, who also devised the "gramophone" to play his disks. Berliner's records were originally made of glass, then zinc, and later, hard rubber. He founded Deutsche Grammophon, and Britain's Gramophone Co., Ltd. Thomas Edison attempted to compete with the Berliner Gramaphone by designing a disk type machine of his own which played flat, very thick disks on a machine whose stylus tracked by a mechanical drive rather than being drawn across the surface in the spiral grooves. He was not successful, but his machines are highly collectible today. By 1915, records rotated at a standard 78-rpm (rotations per minute) and were made of shellac, a very fragile substance, making these 10 or 12 inch disks - holding about 4 minutes of sound - readily breakable. The long-playing record (the LP) was invented in 1948 at Columbia Records, was 10 or 12 inches in diameter and played at 33 1/3 rpm. The LP was made from flexible plastic vinyl (vinylite). Using new microgrooves, these records recorded over 20 minutes of sound. In 1949, 7-inch, 45-rpm records were introduced.
So: Emil Berliner is considered to be the originator of the sound reproducing tool which has evolved into the modern stylus-equipped record player. Along the way, the "wire recorder" and the magnetic-tape recorder came into being. Contemporary electronic/digital technology has provided the next step in the evolution of sound reproduction. Edison's cylinder and disk, Berliner's disk, and the wire recorder have all reached an evolutionary dead end.
No, credit for inventing the toilet goes to Sir John Harington, but there was famous company of bathroom and lavatory makers in London called Thomas Crapper & Co., Ltd. Thomas Crapper, the founder, invented the floating ballcock.
2X4When It Is Sawed In A Saw Mill It Is 2" X 4" , Then It Is Kiln Dried And Surfaced. Therefor You Loose Material, Most All Wood Sizes Are Given In Mill Size. 2X6, 2X8, 2x10 ect, These Are The Sizes They Were Cut At The Sawmill.
2x4's used to actually be 2"x4" but the timber companies realized they could cut them down 1/2" on each side without losing any structual integrity and therefore they could get more useable wood out of a tree. I used to frame houses and now I re-hab them. If you ever tear the drywall or plaster out of an old house the studs will measure 2"x4" not 1 1/2" x 3 1/2". The finishing process mentioned above may reduce the final product but is not the "reason" why they are smaller today. If they wanted to make a true 2x4 all they would have to do is make the rough cut 2 1/2 x 4 1/2 and end up with a true 2x4. It was purely a cost saving move.