Agha Khan foundation is running many institutions. Your question should be about a particular institution.
For many Muslims the term "Islam" has two meanings: the Divine Religion of Submission to God's Will (often called Islam with a small "i") and the Institutionalized Belief as Found in Qur'an and Revealed by Mohammed's Prophecy (often called Islam with a capital "I"). islam with a small "i" is a concept that comes out of Islam with a capital "I" and projects the Established Religion of Islam back into the period before would have identified as Muslim. The purpose of said belief, in a functional sense, is to gird Islam in the history afforded by the Judeo-Christian prophetic lineage and ensure its authenticity. islam also affords the believer in Islam a continuity of tradition which Mohammed only continued and corrected as opposed to having the religion of Islam be an affront or disagreement with other divinely-inspired religions. Since islam is derivative of Islam, it does not actually exist prior to Islam. Islam, as an Established Religion, was organized and directed by Mohammed, who was born in 570 C.E. at Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, he received revelations from God in Mecca in from the year 610-632 C.E. He was supported by several family members like his uncle Ali Ibn Talib and his first wife Khadija to pursue these prophecies. He converted other members to his nascent religion before being expelled from Mecca to Yethrib (now known as Medina) in 622 C.E. When Mohammed became the Chief Hakam or Judge/Administrator of Yethrib, he received many new revelations and began to ask members of his community to memorize these revelations (along with prior ones). These memorizers (in Arabic Hafeths) would eventually be responsible for the creation of one unified Qur'an. By Mohammed's death, he had conquered all of Arabia and converted most of Arabia to his new faith, establishing the grounds for an Islamic Caliphate, which succeeded him.
Yes, Muhammad is considered the 'seal of the prophets' of the god of Abraham (who is referred to in Arabic as "Allah"). However, Islam recognizes all of the prophets of Jewish and Christian traditions- including everyone from Adam, David, Noah, Moses, and Jesus.
No one knows the time frame from Adam to Muhammad (Pbut). Islam doesn't specify the Earth is such and such age or hoe long humanity has been on this planet
The following countries have Islam as their state religion:
Saudi Arabia (Sunni)