There are 4 main branches of the faith
Masorti generally equals Conservative, while Liberal generally equals Reform, although there are distinctions at national level
Orthodox here as a general umbrella term includes the Ultra-Orthodox, even though there is a clear distinction.
The Orthodox branch is the most hierarchical in the list, as well as the most 'authoritative' although the Jewish religion emphasizes constructive debate, so hierarchical allows for difference of opinion. Therefore the most authoritative view, for an individual Jewish person, is in every case that of his/her own rabbi; while in principle the individual is free to change synagogues should he/she feel that his/her Rabbi's opinion differs unpalatably from his/her own view.
The halacha, set of legal interpretations, that derives from the modern hierarchy, is mostly limited to modern interpretations suited to modern conditions, of ancient understandings, some, according to tradition, going back to the time of the written Torah itself, many deriving from the writings of the Babylonian Jewish sages, the Talmud, more yet deriving from the writings of the Jewish sages of the Middle Ages whose understanding of the Talmud is well-respected.
The unifying factor in all branches of the faith, between all synagogues, all rabbis, is the Hebrew Bible itself, the set of documents whose transfer into Christianity is called the Old Testament. A respect, put at its simplest, for the laws stated in the Torah, the 5 Books of Moses, the first 5 books of the Bible, is in many ways the definition of Jewishness, hence the Torah is the true authority.
There is generally a Chief Rabbi at national level, sometimes regional level, occasionally city level as in Israel;
the Orthodox Chief Rabbinate of Israel, consisting of 2 Rabbis representing the 2 communities of the Orthodox, as head of a court system managing relevant civil status matters, is one of the more authoritative, even controversially so as according to the Israeli constitution, it therefore limits the authority of the more liberal branches to define according to their own rules, the civil status of their own adherents.
In countries that allow religious courts to handle civil status matters for their adherents, the system is broadly similar; however usually less strictly Orthodox, given the demographic differences - less Orthodox, more liberals - in the diaspora.
Generally there is similarity, although not necessarily identity, of opinion between Chief Rabbis for different areas. There is no absolute binding principle that I know of, of deference of diasporan Chief Rabbis to the Chief Rabbinate of Israel.
The people believe in scriptures of old testaments.
The values of Judaism are contained within the hundreds of mitzvoth (commands), principles and beliefs of the Torah. Though it may have an associated culture and one or more associated languages, the traditional definition of Judaism is the observance of the Torah, which is why dictionaries define Judaism as "the religion of Moses." In this sense, the word "Torah" is meant in its wider meaning, which includes the Tanakh, the Talmud, and other classical Jewish texts. The philosophy of Judaism is that this world is a purposeful creation by God, in which all people are tested concerning their use of free-will. We possess a soul which lives on after the body dies and is held responsible for the person's actions. Anyone who is worthy, Jewish or not, can merit reward in the afterlife. For fuller detail, see the Related Links.Link: The basic beliefs of Judaism
Link: The practices of Judaism Link: The principles of Judaism
Link: The ethics of Judaism
Link: How Judaism began
Link: The texts of Judaism
Christian answer 1:
The first leader of the Jews may be considered Abraham. He made the covenant with God and was promised to be the "Father of nations". However remember that Abraham was a continuation of prophets that stretches back all the way to Adam. Abraham paid thiths to Melcesdic. All of these men belonging to the Houshold of faith that believed in Christ. Abrahams blessing is spcific to him however, and the liniage of the Jews begins with him. have a blessed day.
Christian answer 2:
Mandate of IsraelYeshua, Maschiach of Israel. Before He was born in Beitlekhem, he appeared to Avra'am, Yitzhak, Ya'akov and Moshe. Once Israel confirms Him, He will be crowned as the King of Israel.
According to tradition, Abraham was the first leader of Judaism, since it was he who founded it.
There should be two ways for a nation to be considered a "Jew-hating nation", (1) nations where 75% of more of the general population harbor Anti-Semitic views, or (2) nations where the government actively condones or supports Anti-Semitism or espouses strongly Anti-Semitic views. Countries of both types exist. (1) Anti-Semitic Populations: According to the ADL Global 100 survey, the following 16 countries had populations where at least 75% harbored Anti-Semitic Views: Palestine, Iraq, Yemen, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Oman, and Egypt. Additionally, the survey did not include the following 6 countries which would likely also have populations where at least 75% harbor Anti-Semitic views: Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Mauritania, Sudan, and Somalia. It is worth noting that we see no similar characteristics or surveys concerning the prevalence of hatred towards other ethnic or religious groups with the singular exception of the Romani/Gypsies. Also note that this survey and other similar surveys ask questions about Anti-Semitism only and do not ask questions that could be construed as Anti-Zionist, but not necessarily Anti-Semitic. Particularly Anti-Semitic views include, among others: (1) that Jews exert an strong amount of control or direction on politics and economics, (2) that Jews murder Non-Jews in order to gain access to their blood - usually for ritualistic purposes, (3) that Jews are disloyal/treacherous/deceiving to Non-Jews, (4) Holocaust denialism or "revisionism", and (5) that Jews provoke or cause most of the world's wars. (2) Anti-Semitic Governments: There are several countries whose governments have actively fanned the flames of the Anti-Semitism and have espoused Anti-Semitic doctrines as part of government policy. The most prominent today is Saudi Arabia, which has a number of Anti-Semitic laws and policies such as: (1) making it virtually impossible for a Jewish tourist to come to Saudi Arabia, (2) legally banning Jews from living or working in Saudi Arabia, (3) confiscating any Jewish religious paraphernalia, (4) paying for the printing and disseminating Jewish-hate literature such as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Mein Kampf (although, surprisingly the Arabic version Kefaahi - كفاحي leaves out Hitler's half-chapter where he explains that Arabs are sub-humans that he respects because he sees Islam as a violent, conquering ideology that he feels like Germans should emulate), (5) funding mosques and imams in other countries to promote a Wahhabist agenda which includes, among other things, promoting Anti-Semitism. Another Anti-Semitic government is that of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which actually hosted a Holocaust Denial Conference. While there is debate about whether the number of Jews who were killed is 5.4 million up to 7.5 million, there is no legitimate debate that at least 5.4 million were killed, and the conference sought to minimize the number by orders of magnitude, i.e. 100,000 or so, or deny it completely. This minimization of the deaths or complete obfuscation is Holocaust Denial. Iran has also provided direct funding to Hezbollah, whose founder Hassan Nasrallah is famously quoted as having said that he would prefer that all of the Jews came to Israel so that he would not have to hunt them down all over the world. Another Anti-Semitic leader is the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia who argued at the Organization of the Islamic Conference that Jews "cunningly get others to die on their behalf" and defended this statement against righteous international scrutiny. Note again, that, with the exception of the Romani/Gypsies and possibly the Baha'i in Iran, no ethnic or religious group is targeted by various different governments in such a systematic way.
General answer: In the Hebrew Alephbet (alphabet) the letter dalet corresponds to the English letter 'D'. The vav is a letter 'V.' The extra yud is a vowel adding the long 'e' sound in 'David,' pronounced 'dah-veed'. The dalet, vav, yud, dalet is the correct spelling for the name David.
- Jewish answer: