Synagogue services are held three times a day, every day of the year.Weekday morning prayer lasts about 45 to 60 minutes.
Afternoon services and the evening service are often consecutive, beginning around 15-30 minutes before sunset. Sabbath (Saturday) morning service will commonly begin at 7:30 a.m. or later. This prayer is for about 2-3 hours.
See also the Related Links.
Link: Prayer and the synagogue
Link: When are the Jewish festivals
Jews do not refer to God as Allah and so do not have a day to worship Allah. Allah is a Muslim term for God.
Although in modern times it is very ecumenical to say that the Jews and Muslims worship the same God, many orthodox Jews and Muslims would disagree and so it is not proper to confuse the two religions and their doctrines, revelations, or types of worship.
The main day of worship on the western Gregorian calendar for Jews is Saturday. For the Muslims it is Friday.
Many Jews from Arab countries do in fact use the name Allah when referring to God. Religious Jews pray 3 times a day, every day. Shabbat starts Friday at sundown and ends Saturday night. Prayers are done 4 times on Saturday.
Biblical tradition says that Abraham was the first in his line to worship God. This would place the starting date of Judaism at around 2000 BCE. A midrash (non-binding Jewish tradition) says that Abraham realised that the idols of the gods of his father had no power and so sought the real God. Judaism is also sometimes regarded as starting with Moses because God gave him the ten commandments, and because he is often credited with writing the first 5 books of the Bible - the Pentateuch or Torah - which largely define Judaism. this would place the starting date of Judaism around 1400 BCE, based on the traditional date for the death of Moses.
Perhaps it is not possible to arrive at a better answer than either of the traditional dates. However, within the constraints of a short answer, I will try to indicate the date that some scholars accept. We now know that the first five books are composed from input from several sources, usually known as J, E, D and P. The sources known as J and E seem to date back to early in the first millennium BCE. D dates from before 600 BCE and P probably lived during the Babylonian exile. In order to establish when Judaism really began, we need to go backwards from this date to find the earliest reliable evidence of Judaism.
During part of the tenth century BCE, the Hebrew people are said to have lived in a United Kingdom, ruled from the wealthy city of Jerusalem, in what was to become Judah, by kings who worshipped the God of Judaism. King David conquered the well-fortified Jebusite city of Jerusalem early in his reign. Because of the taxes imposed by Solomon and his successor, the northern kingdom, Israel, broke away and asserted its independence.
However, archaeologists tell us that there was no city of Jerusalem for David to conquer. Finkelstein goes as far as to say that the population of the whole of Judah during the relevant period was only about 40,000 - a fairly small crowd for a major football match today, and surely too small to subjugate the much larger and more prosperous northern state of Israel. Without further evidence, we can not rely on Judaism having existed during the time of Saul, David and Solomon.
We know from the Bible that the northern kingdom, Israel, was at all times polytheistic. The biblical references to the kings of Israel show every one of them as polytheistic in their beliefs. Biblical references that tell us about popular religion in Israel - what the people themselves believed - show that the nation was polytheistic from its inception until its destruction by the Assyrians.
Judaism must have begun in the southern Hebrew state of Judah. We also know from the Bible that Judah was polytheistic until the reign of Hezekiah, who made a failed attempt to impose monotheism in the 7th century BCE. Arguably, if a recognisable forerunner of Judaism existed before this time, it was only a small sect, constantly at odds with the powerful kings of Judah. Hezekiah's son, Manasseh, allowed polytheism to flourish once again, evidence that monotheism had not taken root among the ordinary people.
Almost a century after Hezekiah, King Josiah reinstituted the reforms of his ancestor. During this period, the "book of law", believed to be Deuteronomy was 'found' in the Temple during renovations. Scholars say that the D source (the Deuteronomist) lived during the reign of Josiah and not only completed much of the Pentateuch, but also wrote the Deuteronomic history - the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings. These reforms, the largely successful permanent introduction of monotheism and the substantial completion of major works of the Bible, could be regarded as the origin of Judaism - late in the seventh century BCE.
We can identify changes to the theology of the Bible, starting during the Babylonian exile of the sixth century BCE. If we regard the new ideas absorbed during this period as essential to the definition of Judaism, then Judaism could begin then.
Finally, Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development, is a compilation of articles on rabbinical , edited by Hershel Shanks. The authors describe significant differences in ritual and interpretation of the Torah between Judaism of the Common Era, compared to what went before. John Dominic Crossan (The Birth of Christianity) says that although rabbinic Judaism claimed exclusive continuity with the past, it was as great a leap and as valid a development from that common ancestry as was Christianity.
The Hebrew Bible talks of many mythological and legendary figures in the early history of the world. The most important of these include Adam, Abraham and Moses.
However, the earliest historical person was probably King David, although many scholars believe he was probably not so much a king as a local warlord with a tribal base near Jerusalem.
The original menorah was of gold and stood in the Jewish Temple, as commanded in Exodus ch.25. It burned olive oil.
For the last 2200 years, another type of menorah is the ones that are lit during Hanukkah.
For most Jews, the centerpiece of Hanukkah is the Hanukkah-menorah, a nine-branched candelabrum, also sometimes called a Hanukkiah. As you look at a menorah, you will notice that one candle is set at a different level from the other eight. That one is called the Shammash, or helper candle. Jewish law states that the regular candles are for viewing and spreading the word of the miracle only, so the Shammash is used to light the others, and for any other purpose, such as for light to read by.
The menorah itself may be made in almost any manner - glass, aluminum or other metals. Menorahs may be sleek and contemporary, or flowery and ornate, and may incorporate decorations such as the Tree of Life.
The menorah should be placed in a manner that is as visible as possible to the public, to publicize the miracle of Hanukkah. Depending on custom, some families light the menorah in a doorway, or a window, or some other place that is highly visible.
He is called a mohel.
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