The philosophy of Judaism is that this world is a purposeful creation by God, in which all people are tested concerning their use of free-will. We possess a soul which lives on after the body dies and is held responsible for the person's actions. Anyone who is worthy, Jewish or not, can merit reward in the afterlife. Here is a list of the most basic beliefs of Judaism, as codified by Maimonides: 1. God exists, and is the Creator. This tells us that the world is not purposeless or chaotic. Life is the result of a deliberate, purposeful, intelligent and kind Creator; not a melancholy chaos or a string of fortuitous accidents. 2. God is One and unique. This is the basis of all Western monotheistic belief, which was given to the world by Abraham and his descendants. This belief places God at the center of reality and the center of our world-outlook and thoughts. (See: Biography of Abraham) 3. God is not physical. This includes the corollary that no person should be worshiped as God or as a god. Judaism has no god-kings, no demigods, no angel who flouts God's will, and no sports-idols, movie-idols etc. 4. God is eternal. This includes the belief that God's ways are also eternal. God is not capricious, forgetful or fickle. Investing in a relationship with God is the only thing that will bear eternal benefits. 5. Prayer is to be directed only to God. This also teaches us that no person, government or institution is to be accorded blind trust. We pray directly to God, three times a day; and we recount our shortcomings, ask for our needs, and acknowledge our successes with happy thanks. 6. The words of the prophets are true. The prophecies of the Hebrew Bible have been coming true throughout history. Even secular archaeologists (the unbiased ones) have stated that the Hebrew Bible is the most accurate of historical records, as the disdainful theories of Wellhausen and Bible-critics of his ilk have been shattered by the archaeologist's spade. A list of Bible verses which were deemed anachronistic but later shown to be perfectly accurate would run into the many hundreds. (See: Archaeology and Bible-critics) 7. The prophecies of Moses are true; and he was the greatest prophet. 8. The Torah was given to Moses by God. These two beliefs are the basis of our attitude towards the Torah: it is the center of our lives. Jews are keeping mitzvot (commands), saying blessings, praying, learning Torah and doing acts of kindness and charity all the time. The Torah is the single greatest thing that a Jew has; given to us to provide knowledge, guidance, inspiration, awe and reverence, advice, law, comfort, history and more. It is the basis of Judaism. 9. There will be no other Torah. We Jews have been around for 3800 years. New fads, manifestos, beliefs or lifestyles which rear their heads are met by the Jew with a calm, seasoned eye and the proverbial grain of salt. The Torah doesn't change; and every new thing can be measured against the Torah's standards. 10. God knows the thoughts and deeds of all. 11. God rewards the good and punishes the wicked. These two beliefs provide a vast incentive towards righteousness and, when needed, repentance. They also form part of the basis of our belief in the afterlife, since this entire world wouldn't be enough to reward a Moses or punish a Hitler. God is just (Deuteronomy 32:4); and all outstanding accounts are settled after this life. 12. The Messiah will come. 13. The dead will be resurrected. Judaism is the only ancient religion which taught optimism; and a large part of that optimism was and is based upon the words of the prophets.
Can you show that God exists
The afterlife in Judaism
How did the Hebrew Bible affect the Israelites?
While Judaism has many beliefs, there are 13 essential beliefs that are listed by Maimonides as the "central pillars" of Judaism, meaning that someone who lacks any one of these beliefs cannot be regarded as a believer in Judaism. 1) That G-d runs the world. 2) That He is absolutely and indivisibly One. 3) That He is non-physical. 4) That He is above all concept of time. 5) That only He is worthy of being worshiped. 6) The truth of the phenomenon of prophecy. 7) That Moses was the greatest prophet that the world ever saw, or ever will see. 8) That the Torah, Written and Oral, that we have today was given by G-d through His servant Moses. 9) That this Torah will never be retracted or replaced. 10) That G-d knows everything. 11) That G-d rewards and punishes. 12) That G-d will eventually send His servant, the Messiah, to usher in an age when all of mankind will turn completely to G-d. 13) That G-d will one day resurrect the dead of mankind for their final judgement.
All Jews have the same Torah, but not necessarily identical culture.Orthodox Jews believe that the Torah must be fully observed (Deuteronomy 13:5). They keep the laws of Judaism as codified in the Shulchan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law), which lists the laws of the Torah and Talmud. Torah-study is seen as very important (Deuteronomy 5:1); and the modern world is seen as subservient to the Torah (Talmud, Nedarim 32a), not the other way around. Other Jewish groups (Conservative, Reform) adapt, curtail or change the Torah-laws in contemporary life, to a greater or lesser degree.
That is one of the factors which give rise to differences in culture. Also, Jews are widely scattered, so there are in any case contrasts in cuisine, manner of dress and speech, etc. See also the Related Links.
Link: Types of Jews
Link: Jewish religious culture
The most common one is Harnica and The Passover
The Torah states that Pharaoh claimed that the high Israelite birth-rate could pose a potential threat (Exodus ch.1). He used this as a reason/an excuse to enslave them.On a spiritual level, the Egyptian slavery was brought about by God (see Genesis ch.15). It taught us the importance of loving the stranger (Deuteronomy 10:19), it showed us the power of God when He redeemed us (Exodus 10:2) as well as His personal concern for us (Exodus 2:24); and it served as the "iron furnace" (Deuteronomy 4:20) which smelted us (the Israelites) into a nation and separated the dross.
See also the Related Links.
Link: The Exodus
The Talmud explains the ten commandments and the details of Torah verses.
The Talmud is a collection of rabbinical discussion, critique and insight concerning Jewish faith, law, culture, ethics, etc. It includes the Mishnah (brief laws) and Gemara (Aramaic commentary) and the minor tractates (volumes). The central pillar of the Talmud is the Mishnah (the Oral Law), which is usually printed and studied as part of the Talmud.
- The Talmud serves to clarify the brief verses of the Torah and Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
- The Talmud, after the Hebrew Bible, is considered the primary text of Jewish learning.
- The Talmud contains, in addition to Torah-matters, some mathematics, geometry and trigonometry, medicine, astronomy, and advice on a large range of problems and situations.