In Australia? Statute laws are made as a bill which passes through parliament.
DRAFTING. 1) First there is the 'drafting' of the bill, where the bill is put into correct words, phrases, amd definitions (such a job is done by the parliamentary draftsman). If the bill is being initiated by the political party currently in government, then the proposal is discussed in the 'cabinet' before being passed to the parliamentary draftmen for drafting. After the bill is drafted, it is taken back to the cabinet for approval
INITIATION. 2) Here the minister announces that he/she will take action on the next sitting day to bring in a bill for an act to... (the clerk will read to title of the bill), and the possible reasons for its necessary existence will be made evident.
FIRST READING. 3) This stage is where the title of the bill is read by the minister introducing the bill. Before proceeding to the next stage, a vote is taken, and copies of the bill are given to each member in the house - so that they may study and scrutinize the bill for possible flaws.
SECOND READING. 4) The minister responsible for the introduction of the bill then explains in greater detail why the bill is necessary, and what changes will occur as en effect of the bills initiation in society. Discussion and debate concerning the bill may follow. The opposition may also seek adjournment for a change to read and investigate the bill more closely.
COMMITTEE STAGE. 5) At this point the entire lower house acts as a committee to examine the bill in detail, discussing and debating the various clauses. Only here may amendments be made, and the clauses (sections of the bill) are voted on individually.
THIRD READING. 6) The chairperson of committees (who chaired the debate) then reports to the 'Speaker', and the bill is read a third time. A vote is taken. After the legislative assembly votes in favour of the bill, it is sent to the upper house (legislative council) where the same process is followed. If any amendments are made to the bill, the proceedure must be repeated in the lower house (legislative assembly) for reapproval.
No US federal law takes effect before it is passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the president.
However, the executive branch of the government does have a huge amount of power. The IRS can set many rules and regulations without any law being passed, as long as no law is violated.
Furthermore, Congress can write a law so that it is retroactive, if the Supreme Court lets them get away with it. A law might be passed one year, but specified to apply to previous years as well.
No, that is wrong! Congress is EXPRESSLY FORBIDDEN from passing retro-active law, by the constitution. The executive branch has SPECIFIED and LIMITED power. [Actually, Congress cannot retroactively make something illegal. It can make something retroactively legal. Thus, it can pass tax laws in, say, December that apply to things which happened the previous January.]
The reason that the IRS can make up rules with out law is that they are rules not law. [Note: this is incorrect. IRS rules are interpretations of existing laws passed by Congress. While it may "appear" to make up tax law, the IRS's rulemaking is closer to judicial interpretation of laws, and conforms to the rule-making powers of other federal agencies]
Yes, judgment for a debt is a civil matter and does not affect a persons rights to travel or carry on with their life in a normal way. It can however affect the person's financial situation in several ways. As a wage garnishment or lien against real property owned by the debtor or seizure and liquidation of non-exempt property owned by the debtor or bank account levies.
Consult with a qualified attorney. The fact that the person changed their name and address to perhaps avoid collectors/creditors does not make the debt(s) any less collectible. It actually may cause additional problems when the person is found and legal action is taken against them, they will quite assuredly, be found.
Some free background information can be found at your states Department of Corrections web-site. You can do an offender search to see if someone has a current record. You might even be lucky enough to just type in their name on google and get some results. You can also get a background check done at your local police department, but you have to have a good reason, such as landlord/tenant or employer/employee.