They both have at least one cell, and they can possibly have membrane.
The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes, which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host especially passerines.
Viruses infect the host cells by mainly injecting their Genomes (DNA or RNA) into the host cells. Viral RNA (in case of HIV) converted (reverse transcribed) to form DNA. These DNA get access to the nucleus of host cell and most of the time integrate the viral genome into the host genome. So the host will now treat the DNA of virus as their "OWN", aid to synthesize viral compartments(capsid proteins) and the viral genome; that subsequently packages to form progeny viruses!
I'm guess is that... the bacteria and viruses forma a thick coat, called an endospore inside them that allows them to survive harsh enviorments while making them dormant (resting cells) at the same time. once the envorment becomes suitable again, the endospore deteriorates and thus the bacteria or virus once again becomes prominant ( non- resting, it can move around now).
i think soooooooooo