A banker does many things such as assist customers with managing their bank accounts. They may also open and close accounts for customers. An accountant prepares financial statements for companies and can also assist with a company's budgets and reports.
A co-signer is not usually on the title of a vehicle unless they are actually a co-borrower/owner. State laws govern how ownership of a vehicle is determined. A Chapter 13 is a consolidation bankruptcy, therefore the co-signer would not necessarily be relieved of the financial responsibility of the loan.
The only option is for the primary borrower to refinance the loan in their name only, or with a different approved co-signer. If their income level has significantly increased as compared to their debt level, a co-signer will probably not be needed.
I found the information you are looking for at this website: http://www.nls.org/benefits/stulon3.htm
In civil law affirmative defense refers to the reason the defendant does not believe they are liable for the debt. Not having the ability to pay is not a viable defense (weird but true). The defendant must show beyond reasonable doubt that the plaintiff's charges are not valid. Not that they aren't true, but that the debt is not collectible (there's a difference). It's understandable that the 'legalese' is confusing you, it confuses everyone even judges. The party involved may want to contact the creditor and negotiate a payment plan, it never hurts to try as no one likes going into court. However, the person should not be coerced into agreeing to any terms to which they are unable to adhere..... Macky...(email@example.com)