Catholic, Protestant, and Apostolic
The Sioux Nation (comprised of seven council fires and sub-tribes) had many spiritual practices. The foundational rituals or ceremonies are the seven rites:
The Keeping of the Soul (Nagi Gluhapi Na Nagi Gluxkapi)
The Rite of Purification or Sweat Lodge (Inipi)
Crying for a Vision or Vision Quest (Hanblecheyapi)
The Sun Dance (Wiwanyag Wachipi)
The Making of Relatives (Hunkapi)
Preparing for Womanhood or Puberty Rite (Ishna Ta Awi Cha Lowan)
Throwing of the Ball (Tapa Wanka Yap)
The Healing (Yuwipi)-- relatively new.
There are literally hundreds of other minor spiritual practices that the Sioux engage in...too many to mention here but you can find them in many fine books.
Puritians- wanted to purify the church
They were a group of people discontent in the Church of England. Mostly all colonists were involved with the church. They had very strict lives. Going to church services to the meeting house which is a large building in the center of a town area. Inside were hard wooden benches. They sat on these benches most of the day because that's how long the services lasted. Puritan was too close to catholism. Puritans called for a church Congregtionalist structure in which each individual church would be largely selfgoverning.
The importance of the cross is that Christ took your punishment for sins in order to restore your broken relationship with God. Christ's sacrifice on the cross makes everlasting life possible to those who repent from sins and put their trust in Christ the savior and Messiah.
Answer 2Kenneth L. Woodward puts it this way-
"Clearly the cross is what separates the Christ of Christianity from every other Jesus. In Judaism, there is no precedent for a Messiah who dies, much less as a criminal as Jesus did. In Islam, the story of Jesus' death is rejected as an affront to Allah himself. Hindus can accept only a Jesus who passes into peaceful samadhi, a yogi who escapes the degradation of death. The figure of the crucified Christ, says Buddhist Thich Nhat Hanh, is a painful image to me. It does not contain joy or peace and this does not do justice to Jesus."
Answer 3Absolutely. The cross was a stumbling block to Judaism even as the events of the crucifixion unfolded before their eyes. The Jews were looking for a glorified Messiah to come as a king. They are correct but their timing is off according to God's calendar. Jesus will come again as the Messiah and king who will end all wars and sin (son of David). But all through the Old Testament scriptures, there were prophecies pointing to the coming of a suffering servant Messiah (son of Joseph). They just didn't understand the meaning of those scriptures even though they were there.
It isn't that countries hate Christians. It is that some individuals hate Christians. And some countries are populated by extremely large percentages of people who are intolerant of Christians. This might make it seem like a country hates Christians. But the bottom line remains the same - hatred is a quality held or expressed by people, not by countries.