TheSenate has the sole power to try all Impeachments. The House of Representatives has the sole power of Impeachment. This is according to the US. Constitution in Article 1
There are no examples of infinite power.
Power cannot increase to infinite values.
Infinite power would be the ability to do anything that is conceivable. God does not actually have infinite power at least according to the christian fathers.
St Thomas Aquinas argued that God's power was not infinite but constrained by logic. That is that God cannot do what is conceivable but logically impossible. So for example God cannot make a square circle (a circle with 4 sides) or create a weight that He himself couldn't lift (as God is omnipotent) because both these things are logically impossible
Yes, an employer is responsible for an employee's actions performed in the pursuit of the job, within the scope of employment. Local stautes and cases are filed under "principal and agent" or "master and servant" or "agency".
The Right to Privacy is exactly how it sounds. A person has the right to keep any or all parts of their private life from other people.